The ISSI team #535, “Unraveling Surges: a joint perspective from numerical models, observations, and machine learning,” has worked actively on advancing the understanding of surges, a common eruptive phenomenon in the solar atmosphere.

  • From the numerical modeling approach, simulations performed with the state-of-the-art Bifrost code have shown that surges and related large coronal jets can be launched in the final stages of Coronal Bright Points (CBPs) due to small-scale magnetic flux emergence episodes that completely disrupt the CBP topology (Nóbrega-Siverio and Moreno-Insertis 2022).

  • From the observational perspective, we have utilized coordinated observations from SST, IRIS, and SDO to explore in detail small-scale magnetic flux emergence episodes that lead to surges and related phenomena. Our study highlights the importance of high-resolution magnetograms in unveiling the mechanisms triggering such phenomena (Nóbrega-Siverio et al. 2024).

  • From the machine learning approach, we have characterized the spectral profiles where surges have traditionally been observed, particularly in the Mg II h&k lines observed with IRIS. We employed a procedure that has proven helpful in identifying typical surge spectral profiles in those lines, which can greatly assist automatic detection algorithms in observations in the near future (Nóbrega-Siverio et al. 2021).

Apart from research strictly related to surges, the ISSI gathering has also allowed the members of the #535 team to collaborate and conduct additional research in phenomena related to surges such as hot coronal jets and CBPs (Nóbrega-Siverio et al. 2023, Joshi et al. 2023, 2024). In total, the collaborative effort carried out by this ISSI team has yielded 7 papers in peer-reviewed journals (with four already published, two accepted, and one currently under review), along with 27 presentations at international conferences and seminars across various research institutions. These contributions include 8 invited talks, 18 oral presentations, and 1 poster presentation. Furthermore, a review on the surge topic is in progress, which will provide a comprehensive overview the current knowledge surrounding this phenomenon, moreover identifying future challenges that need to be addressed. Additionally, data from this ISSI team have been used in a Bachelor’s thesis and an internship at the Universidad de La Laguna (ULL) in Tenerife.