Evidence of the impacts of climate change on the middle and upper atmosphere is increasing, making clear the critical need for observational data to monitor and understand trends. For example, a contraction of the stratosphere has been quantified, but we still face significant limitations on the data available to assess it. Past efforts to study trends have focused mainly on the atmospheric levels separately (mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere), where cooling and contraction have also been observed. Monitoring these trends and their impacts on satellites and space debris needs a continued effort that provides better data and improved insight into the consequences that increased CO2 has on the middle and upper atmosphere. Therefore, the goals of ISSI Team 544 are to evaluate the existing data gaps to monitor trends in the middle and upper atmosphere, improve the situation on data availability, make recommendations on existing needs to study such trends and assess their impact on the drag of space objects. Our team brings together scientists in different stages of their research careers, representing thirteen institutions and the private sector from seven countries, and multidisciplinary expertise.